تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Primary health care (PHC) is defined by the Alma-Ata conference in 1978 as "Essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system of which it is the nucleus and of the overall social and economic development of the community. PHC addresses the main health and health related problems of the community and provides promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative service and activities these include health education, proper nutrition and adequate supply of food, adequate supply of food, adequate and safe water supply, maternal and child care, immunization, prevention, control and treatment of common diseases and injuries.
The Sudan adopted the PHC approach for the solution of the main health problems and for achieving the goal of health for All by the Year 2000. The PHC programme in the Sudan is a very ambitious one in which all health and health related categories and departments, national and international organizations and the local communities are actively involved.
Medical students have a role to play in the programme and a greatr role after graduation concerning the planning, implementation, supervision, support and evaluation ofhte PHC prgramme and to discuss the role of the students and health professionals in the progamme. This course also includes relevant epidemiological principles and methods together with statistical concepts and methods as there are of importance in defining health problems planning, delivery and evaluation of health services

.


المحتويات

الرعاية الصحية الأولية وتطورها (الفلسفة، المفهوم، الخصائص، الاستراتيجيات، المكونات والتقييم)
الإدارة ومبادئ الإدارة
مهارات القيادة
النظام الصحي و السياسة الصحية الوطنية
التخطيط الاستراتيجي
النظام الصحي في السودان وقانون الحكم المحلي لعام 2006
الهيكل التنظيمي لوزارة الصحة والإدارة العامة للرعاية الصحية الأولية والطب الوقائي
إدارة الصحة المهنية (الهيكل التنظيمي – الأهداف- الاستراتيجيات- الاختصاصات- الأنشطة- المتابعة والتقييم)
إدارة الصحة الإنجابية
إدارة الدواء الدوار (مفهوم وسياسة واستراتيجيات الدواء الدوار)
قائمة الأدوية الأساسية في الرعاية الصحية الأولية
التامين الصحي ودوره في خدمات الرعاية الأولية
خارطة الطريق لحماية صحة الطفل وخفض وفيات الأطفال
نموذج لفهم إدارة أنشطة الرعاية الصحية الأولية
إدارة العلاج المتكامل لإمراض الطفولة
إدارة تعزيز الصحة والتثقيف الصحي
إدارة التغذية وبرامجها
برنامج التحصين الموسع
إدارة مبادرات المجتمع التنموية
برنامج مكافحة البلهارسيا
برنامج مكافحة الملاريا
برنامج مكافحة الدرن
برنامج مكافحة الايدز والأمراض المنقولة جنسيا
التخطيط
تقييم الموارد والاحتياجات وتحديد الاولويات
مجموعة الوسائل النوعية لجمع المعلومات- مجموعة النقاش البؤري- الملاحظة- المعاينة- مراجعة السجلات والتقارير
الوسائل الكمية لجمع المعلومات
المسح الصحي المصغر
التخطيط المنطقي المبني على النتائج
ادارة الموارد البشرية والمالية والعمل في تمرين الاشراف والتنفيذ
الرصد والمتابعة
طرق ووسائل التدريب – وضع خطة للتدريب
التقويم
استمارة الإشراف على برامج الرعاية الصحية الأولية بالمحليات
كيفية كتابة التقرير
Evidence- based medicine الطب المبني على البرهان
استقصاء ومكافحة الاوبئة
Quality assurance ضبط الجودة في الخدمات الصحية
كيفية مقترح برنامج قابل للتنفيذ
موجهات عامة لوضع الخطط للبرامج الصحية / نقاش


المنسقون



المطلوبات


SEMESTER 2 - 6 course


الأهداف


1 General objective:

To acquaint the students with knowledge, skills and attitudes to provide better health services after graduation through in-depth understanding of effective service management

2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the PHC course the student is expected to be able to:
2.1 Discuss components and strategies of PHC reform.
2.2 Apply leadership skills in management of PHC activities.
2.3 Discuss the concept of quality control and accreditation methods and its utilization in PHC institutions.
2.4 Discuss the concept of evidence based medicine.
2.5 Discuss the strategies of health services finance and pre-paid services (eg Health insurance fund).
2.6 Describe the policies of essential drugs and availability of drugs in health services institutions.
2.7 Evaluate the applications of patient's right and patient's safety. In health institutions.
2.8 Discuss child health survival activities.

2.9 Manage PHC programmes through:
2.9.1 Health information collection.
2.9.2 Health problems identification
2.9.3. Objective setting, intervention and activities.
2.9.4 Planning for training programmes in the field of PHC.
2.9.5 Planning for supervision programmes and supervisory methods and reports.
2.9.6 Programm implementation, design of tools and indicators determination.
2.9.7 Programme monitoring and evaluation, tools design and indicators determination.

2.10 Utilize PHC strategies for effective community participation, mobilization, intersect oral involvement for health promotion.
2.11 Identify and describe the organizational structure of health services in the Sudan, central and regional.
2.12 Write proposal for financing and implementation health programmes.



طرق التدريس


1 Practice in PHC settings :
Health centre
2 Tutorials and small group discussion
3 Lecture/discussion.
4 Seminars



المصادر


1 Community physicians, paediatricians, obstetrician and gynaecologist, physicians, economist
2 Room for 80 students
3 Overhead projector / multi-media
4 Transportation to PHC settings.
5 Field supervisors.



وسائل التقويم


1 MCQs 20%
Single best answer 10%
2 Essays 30%
3 Problem 10%
4 Seminar 10%
5 Report . 10%
6 A/P 10%



المراجع


(1) 616 DAVIS General practice for students of medicine (2) ch. 4 The nature of primary medical care (incl doctor/patient)
(2) 616 FRY Primary care (1) (Select relevant sections)
(3) 616 LEITCH Primary care (1) (Introductory chapters)
(4) 616 PRITCHARD, Manual of primary health care (1)
(5) 614.073 W.H.O. The primary health worker (3 Arabic 1 English)
(6) 614.073 FENDELL Auxiliaries in health care (1)
(7) 614.073 INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP. Health Manpower and the medical auxiliary (1)
(8) 614.GISH Guidelines for health planners (1)
(9) 614 W.H.O. Primary Health Care - Alma - Ata 1978 (5)
(10) 614.023 HALL Health manpower planning (1) (on loan to someone abroad but there are copies with the Dean)
(11) Community Health Workers,
The relationship between Community Health Workers, the health services and the community
WHO Chronicle 32, pages 144-153, 1978
(12) The Village Committee, starting point for Rural development, WHO Chronicle 31, 307 - 315, 1977
(13) Community Health Workers,
Medicine Digest Vol 7, No. 12, Dec. 81, pages 14-19
(14) Alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in developing countries. A joint UNICEF/WHO Study
(15) Extension of basic services, people's participation, community participation and Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Bulletin vol 4, No. 3, July 1982
(16) Self Instructional Unite (African Health Training Institutions Project series) Nos. 5, 10, 209, 289, 91



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