تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


The human body has the ability to defend its self by preserving the constancy of its own internal environment against external environmental conditions.
Man's Environment is a broad and complex term. It can be divided into:

(A) Internal Environment: means the extra cellular fluid.

Homeostasis: the ability of the body to maintain a state of constancy regardless of the external environment e.g.
A.1- To maintain a relatively constant body temperature under environmental temperature
A.2- To deal with and develops mechanisms against foreign agents (bacterial - viral - Chemical etc.)

(B) External Environment, this can either be natural of man-made

B.1- The physical environment e.g. weather, noise, dust etc.
B.2- The chemical environment e.g. acids, gases, metals etc.
B.3- Biological environment e.g. Parasites and vectors B.4- Social environment e.g. family and community interaction (habit, tradition, beliefs )

To appreciate the importance and to have a holistic view of the external / internal environmental relationships and interactions, we need to study and understand the mechanisms underlying these relationships.
In the Sudan as well as other developing countries, the major health problems, malaria, diarrhea al diseases, malnutrition, bilharzias (to mention only a few) are environmentally induced.
In the Gezira area in particular, there are several irrigation schemes and agricultural industries which contribute to many occupational diseases.


المحتويات


1 Animal cell and its structure and basic functions.
2 Cell membrane.
3 Osmosis; osmolarity, osmolarity filtration diffusion and the physical and physiological theories behind them.
4 The different ways of active transport mechanisms across cell membrane .
5 The different body fluid compartments and the dilution principle for their measurement.
6 The different electrolytes in the major body compartments stating their normal limits and their functions.
7 The factors which control the movement of fluid and electrolytes between the different compartments.
8 Metabolism of potassium and principles of diuretics
9 Water and electrolytes metabolic .
10 The structure and functions of the nephron
11 The basal metabolic rate and discuss affecting it and its measurement
12 Clinical cases of oedema and dehydration and list the major signs, giving the main causes of the above disturbances in children and adults.
13 pH and describe the Handirerson - Hasselbakh equation, as applied to metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
14 Buffer and the different buffering systems of the human body.
15 The disturbances in the acid-base balance and how the body overcomes them .
16 The mechanisms of the body temperature regulation and the clinical manifestation of the failure of these mechanisms. e.g Hypothermia, Hyperthermia and Heat stroke.
17 The importance of ventilation in relation to health .
18 Basic environmental sanitation and provision of safe water supply .
19 The role of surface water pollutants in disease causation giving at least three major health problems as example (Malaria, Bilharzia and G.E.) .
20 The role of thermal environment, humidity and cold weather in causation of diseases ( heat stress, heat stroke , respiratory tract infection etc ).
21 The thermal environment i.e. temperature, humidity, air velocity.
22 The adverse effects of noise on health.
23 Adverse effects of poor lighting conditions.
24 Protective measures against ionizing radiations.
25 The dose response curve.
26 The toxic gases, vapours, fumes and insecticides com List the toxic gases, vapours, fumes and insecticides commonly used in industry in the Sudan.
27 Deposition, clearance and effects of inhaled particles taking cotton dust as an example.
28 The toxic effects of lead, mercury and chromium on health .
29 The expected adverse effects on Man’s health following newly developed physical environmental’s changes (like ozone hole, Global warming, Acid rain , drought and desertification ) and measures recommended for safety and prevention .
30 Various family set ups and the roles of individuals family members giving example from Sudan
31 The role of the family as a unit of the society
32 The psychosocial relationships and interactions between the individual and his family.
33 Common behaviours that improve social values and its effects on external and internal Environment.
34 intercellular communication


المنسقون



المطلوبات


Biochemistry and Histology


الأهداف


1. General Objective:

By the end of the course the student should be able to understand the external environmental components and appreciate the role they play in changing the internal environment and how this environment is kept constant.

2. Specific Objectives:

At the end of the course the student should be able to:
2.1- Draw a typical animal cell and list its structure and basic functions.
2. 2- Describe a typical cell membrane using a drawing.
2. 3- Define osmosis; osmolarity, osmolarity filtration diffusion and explain the physical and physiological theories behind them.
2. 4- List and explain the different ways of active transport mechanisms across cell membrane taking diabetes mellitus as an example.
2. 5- State the different body fluid compartments and describe the dilution principle for their measurement.
2. 6- List the different electrolytes in the major body compartments stating their normal limits and define their functions.
2. 7- Discuss the factors which control the movement of fluid and electrolytes between the different compartments.
2. 8- Discuss metabolism of potassium and principles of diuretics
2. 9- Discuss water and electrolytes metabolic .
2. 10 Describe the structure and functions of the nephron
2. 11- Define the basal metabolic rate and discuss affecting it and its measurement
2. 12- Identify and demonstrate clinical cases of oedema and dehydration and list the major signs, giving the main causes of the above disturbances: a)In children and b) in adults.
2. 13- Define pH and describe the Handirerson - Hasselbakh equation, as applied to metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
2. 14- Define buffer and list the different buffering systems of the human body.
2. 15- Discuss the disturbances in the acid-base balance and how the body overcomes them .
2. 16- Discuss the mechanisms of the body temperature regulation and the clinical manifestation of the failure of these mechanisms. e.g Hypothermia, Hyperthermia and Heat stroke.
2. 17- Discuss the importance of ventilation in relation to health .
2. 18- Discuss basic environmental sanitation and provision of safe water supply .
2. 19- Discuss the role of surface water pollutants in disease causation giving at least three major health problems as example (Malaria, Bilharzia and G.E.) .
2. 20- Discuss the role of thermal environment, humidity and cold weather in causation of diseases ( heat stress, heat stroke , respiratory tract infection etc ).
2. 21- Measure the thermal environment i.e. temperature, humidity, air velocity.
2. 22- List the adverse effects of noise on health.
2. 23 - List at least 3 adverse effects of poor lighting conditions.
2. 24- To recommend suitable protective measures against ionizing radiations.
2. 25- Explain the dose response curve.
2. 26- List the toxic gases, vapours, fumes and insecticides com List the toxic gases, vapours, fumes and insecticides commonly used in industry in the Sudan.
2. 27- Discuss deposition, clearance and effects of inhaled particles taking cotton dust as an example.
2. 28- Outline the toxic effects of lead, mercury and chromium on health .
2. 29- Discuss the expected adverse effects on Man’s health following newly developed physical environmental’s changes (like ozone hole, Global warming, Acid rain , drought and desertification ) and measures recommended for safety and prevention .
2. 30 - Describe various family set ups and the roles of individuals family members giving example from Sudan
2. 31- Describe the role of the family as a unit of the society
2. 32- Discuss the psychosocial relationships and interactions between the individual and his family.
2. 33- Discuss common behaviours that improve social values and its effects on external and internal Environment.


طرق التدريس


Lectures
Problem solving exercises
Small group activities and panel discussions
Cases and slides presentation
Seminars
Assignments
Tutorials


المصادر


1) Human Resources:

1 .1. Coordinators
1 .2. Physiologists
1 .3. Occupational health Specialist
1 .4. Community Medicine Specialist
1 .5. Internal Medicine physicians
1 .6. Paediatricians
1 .7. Anatomist
1 .8. Anaesthetists
1 .9. Biochemist
1 .10. Social Anthropologist
1 .11. Demonstrator
1 .12. Laboratory Technicians
1 .13. Assistant Laboratory Technicians

2) Physical Resources:

2.1. A hall ( with slide and over head Projectors ) to accommodate all students
2.2. 4 rooms , each to accommodate 15 students for tutorials.

2.3 Physiology laboratory to accommodate all students contains :
2.3.1 Hydrometers
2.3.2 Thermometers
2.3.3 Kata thermometer
2.3.4 Dry and wet bulb thermometer
2.3.5 Microscopes
2.3.6 Sphygmomanometer

2.4 Medical Education Development and Research Center (over head companion Medical Studies)
2.5 Transport: Buses for all students for factory visit
2.6 Library


وسائل التقويم


1 - Attendance and perforce…………………… .10%
2 - MCQ………………………………………… 50%
3- Essays ……………………………………….. 40%


المراجع


Review of medical physiology
Clinical chemistry and diagnosis
Companion to medical studies
ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety Technical Editor: Dr. Luigi ParmeThird edition Geneva, International Labour Office, 1983, 2vols


الجدول الزمني

Dr. El Rayh + Dr DrNahid Introduction of the course Sun 29/1/2017
8:30-8:00
Waiel Nuri
Structure & function of typical animal cell
10:30 – 9:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed Mohammed
Body fluids compartments & their measurement
11:30 – 1:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed
Distribution of electrolytes in body fluids
Môn:30/1/2017
10:00-8:00
Dr.Bdreldeen Elsunni
Concept of osmolarity& its measurement
12:30-11:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed
Transport across cell membrane (diffusion, osmosis, filtration)
2:30 - 12:30
Dr.Nahid Ahmed
Transport across cell membrane (Active transport)

Tuse 31/1/2017
10:00 – 9:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed
Introduction to problem (1)
12:00-11:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed
Functional anatomy of the nephron
2:00 - 12:00
Longitudinal
Wed 1/2/ 2017
Dr.Nahid Ahmed Mohammed
Homeostasis & concepts of feed back mechanism

Thur 2/2/2017
8:00-10:00
Dr.Nahid Ahmed Mohammed
Acid – base balance and their disturbances
12:30 -11:00

Reading assignment on problem (1)
Group (1)Dr. Mariam Omer Qurashi
Group (2)Dr. Nasreen Mohammed Eisa
Group (3)Ust. Arif mohammed
Group (4)Dr Fatima AbdElrhaman
Group (5)DrMawada Ahmed ElNour
4:00 - 12:30
Dr. Mariam Omer Qurashi
Na+ and water metabolism

Sun 5/2/2017
8:00-10:00
Dr. Abed Allah Abd El Kareem
K+ metabolism & principles of diuretics
12:30- 11:00
Dr. Nesreen Mohammed Eisa
Regulation of body temperature
2:30 - 12:30
Dr. Nesreen Mohammed Eisa
Basal metabolic rate

Mon 6/2/2017
8:00-10:00

Reading assignment on problem (1)
oup (1) Dr. Mariam Omer Qurashi
Group (2) Dr. Nesreen Mohammed Eisa
Group (3)Ust. Arif mohammed
Group (4) Dr.Fatima Abed Elrhaman
Group (5)Dr.Mawada Ahmed ElNour
2:30 - 11:00
DrEsam Mohamed Abd Allah
Intercellular communications

Tues 7/2/2017
8:00-9:00
DrEsam Mohamed Abd Allah
Autonomic nervous system
11:00 - 9:30
Physician staff
Field visit to Wad Medani Hospital to see case on edema
11:30 - 2:30

Longitudinal
Wed 8/2/ 2017
Dr. Mariam Omer Qurashi
Dr. Nesreen Mohammed Eisa
Ust. Arif mohammed
Dr. Fatima Abed Elrhaman
Dr. Mawada Ahmed ElNour

Discussion of problem (1)

Thur 9/2/2017
Prof. Magda Elhadi
physical environmental factors
Air, its components , importance for health and measurement of air velocity
Workplaces ventilation system , its effects on health and measure for safety and prevention

Sun.12/2/2017
8:30 – 9:30
Dr. El Rayh Mohammed Ahmed
Basic environmental sanitation and provision of safe water supply
11:00-12:00

Introduction to seminar on water borne diseases --Guidelines for seminar preparation and presentation
12:00-1:00

Reading assignment for seminar Groups works on seminar )
1:00-2:00

Pediatric staff
-Prof. Huda
Dr. George
Dr. Musa
Dr. Fawzia
Dr. Nada
Dr. Husham

Field visit to pediatric hospital to see cases of., Malaria, Bilharzias , Fever, Gastroenteritis and Dehydration
(Student group)

Mon 13/2/2017
8:00-2:00

Dr. Sherine
Dr. Abeer
Dr. Iman
Dr. Tasabeh
Dr. Osman
Dr. Fakhr Eldein
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed

Presentation and discussion of water – born diseases
group(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10)

Tue14/2/2017 8:00 – 2:00

Longitudinal

Wed 15/2/2017 9:00 – 7:30

Elhoda Factory
Buscuit Factory
Pepesi Factory
Buses for transport

Field visit to factory for measuring thermal environment
(student groups)

Thur.16/2/2017
8:00-2:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Introduction to problem(2)
Sun19/2/2017
9:00-8:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Physical environmental factor:
Effects of heat, humidity and cold weather on health (heat stress, heat stroke, respiratory tract infection, etc..)
and measures for prevent ion and management
11:00-10:00
2:00-12:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Physical environmental factors:
Light : Effects of light on health.
Effects of Noise on health.
( Adverse health effects of noise and measures for safety and prevention)
Mon20/2/2017
8:00- 9:00
10:00-11:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Adverse effects on man’s health of ozone hole, global warming , acid rain, rise of temperature rates, drought and desertification and measures recommended for safety and prevention
12:00-2:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Chemical environmental factors.
Tue21/2/2017
8:00 - 9:30

Insecticides (pesticides) intoxication and measures for safety, prevention and management
11:00-12:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Dose response curve
12:00-2:00

Longitudinal

Wed.22/2/2017
Dr. Salwa Elsonosi Ionizing radiation
Adverse health effect’s and recommendation for safety and prevention
Heavy metals intoxication and measures for safety
prevention and management

Thur 23/2/2017
8:00- 9:30
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Lead poisoning
Mercury poisoning
Chromium poisoning
11:00-12:00
12:00-1:00
1:00-2:00
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Effects of irritant gases, vapors and fumes on health and measures for prevention and management
Sun26/2/2017
8:00-9:30
Dr. Elrayah Mohamed
Inhaled particles
effects and fate Elective
11:00-12:00
1:00-2:00
Dr. Inshrah
Biological environment (social factors)
Family set up and the roles of individual family members
The rate of the family as a unit of the society

Mon27/2/2017
8:00 – 9:00
10:00-11:00
Ust Moaia
Psychological relationship and interaction between the individual and his family
11:30-12:30
Dr. Adil Ali
Elective
1:00-2:00

Elective

Tue28/2/2017
8:00 – 2:00

Longitudinal

Wed. 1/3/2017
CO-Ordinator
END OF COURSE EXAM
MCQs
Essay

Thur2/3/2017

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