تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Pharmacology is a science that links Basic and Clinical Sciences. It is concerned with studding drug interaction with the human body in order to make use of the drug action. This is because the human body benefits from the use of drugs. The safety from drug adverse effects and complications, and the utilization of drug to prevent diseases, are all components of pharmacology.
The study of pharmacology depends on knowledge, in the part of the student, on biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology
Pharmacology and therapeutics are well integrated in the medical curriculum, University of Gezira, this is in line with the University of Gezira philosophy and the strategies of the Faculty of Medicine. This course is concerned with the study of pharmacology and therapeutics, in addition to this, the study of therapeutics is well emphasized in system courses and in clerkships.



المحتويات


1) Basic principles of pharmacology

1.1 Historical overview of pharmacology. Drugs and medication. Pharmacological, therapeutic and toxiceffects. Objectives and subdivisions of pharmacology.
1.2 Mechanism of drug action. Relationship between structure and activity. Concept of receptor. Types of receptors. Interaction between drug and receptor: affinity, efficacy.

2) Introduction to pharmacology and therapeutics

2.1 ( intrinsic activity) and power. Agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Quantitative aspects.
2.2 Drug cycle. Physicochemical factors that influence drug passage through biological membranes. Passive transport: influence of pH. Active transport.
2.3 Drug absorption. Plasma levels and their importance. Factors that modify absorption. Bioavailability. Pharmaceutical forms. Enteral and parenteral administration routes.
2.4 Drug distribution. Factors that influence distribution: physiological factors and the physicochemical properties of drugs. Influence of plasma proteins. Tissue deposits. Concept of redistribution. Blood-brain barrier. Placental barrier.
2.5 Drug metabolism. Transformation (stage 1) and conjugation (stage II) reactions. Physiological, pharmacological and pathological factors which modify drug metabolism.
2.6 Drug excretion. Excretory routes: renal: biliary and faecal. Other excretory routes. Modification of the excretory process.
2.7 general principles of pharmacokinetics. Orders of kinetic processes. Pharmacokinetic concept of biological compartment. Main pharmacokinetic parameters: half life, distribution volume, clearance and bioavilability. Non-linear pharmacokinetics. Drug dosage. Initial dose and maintenance dose. Monitoring plasma levels.
2.8 Drug interactions. Pharmaceutical incompatibility. Interactions at the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic levels. Concepts of synergy, potentiation and antagonism.
2.9 Averse reactions. Classification. Overdose, collateral effects, side effects, hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy, tolerance and dependence. Resistance. Teratogeny and carcinogenesis.
2.10 Drug development, preclinical pharmacology:
pharmacological and toxicological studies. Clinical pharmacology. Stages of a drug trial. Drug surveillance. Adjusting the dose in different physiological and pathological states.

3)Pharmacology of autonomic nervous system

3.1 Pharmacology of the involuntary nervous system. Physiological and anatomical bases. Synaptic neurotransmitters and receptors. Site and mechanism of action of drugs that work on th involuntary nervous system.
3.2 The cholinergic system. Cholinergic receptors. Direct action cholinergic drugs. Acetylcholine and synthetic derivatives. Other natural cholinergic substances. Indirect action cholinergic drugs: reversible and irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors. Acetylcholinesterase reactivators: pralidoxime.

4) Introduction to pharmacology and therapeutics

4.1 muscarinic cholinergic blockers. Atropine and synthetic anticholinergic drugs.
4.2 Ganglion blockers and stimulants. Agents that block the motor endplate. Depolarizing and antidepolarizing curare compounds.
4.3 The adrenergic system. Adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines: adrenalin, noradrenaline and dopamine. Alpha adrenergic stimulants.
4.4 Beta adrenergic stimulants. Indirect adrenergic drug: phenylisoproylamines and others
4.5 Valpha adrenergic receptor blockers.
4.6 Beta adrenergic receptor blockers.
4.7 Specific inhibitors of catecholamine synthesis and release:alpha methyltyrosine and guanetidine. Central action drugs that interfere with adrenergic neuronal function: methyldopa and clonidine.



المنسقون



المطلوبات


Biochemistry
Man and his environment
Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry
Introduction to the study of Diseases
Problems of the muscuto-skeletal system



الأهداف


1) General Objectives:

To provide basic knowledge about the properties and mechanisms of action of drugs from the various pharmacodynamic groups so that students can implement a rational and effective approach to drug-based treatment.

2) Specific Objective:

By the end of this course, the student is expected to:
2.1 Be familiar with the physiochemical characteristics of drugs, the properties of cell membranes and the biochemical and physiological mechanisms which determine the drug cycle.
2.2 Understand the importance of drug plasma levels and be familiar with the main pharmacokinetic parameters and their definition.
2.3 Be familiar with the general principles of the mechanisms of drug action and the bases of interactions and adverse reactions.
2.4 Be familiar with the main characteristics of the most representative drugs, within each pharmacodynamic group, including a general idea of their chemical structure and a clear notion of their mechanism of action.
2.5 Relate the therapeutic applications of a drug to its pharmacodynamic properties and mechanism of action.



طرق التدريس


1 Lectures
2 Tutorials
3 Seminars
4 Field Visits



المصادر


1 Human Resources:
Specialists in pharmacology and therapeutics

2 Physical Resources:
2.1 Lecture room
2.2 audio-visual aids.



وسائل التقويم


1 MCQs (50%)
2 Short questions (40%)
3 Attendance and performance (10%)



المراجع


Seeman .P , Sellers B, and Roschlan.W (1980). Principles if Meducak Ogarnacikigy, Third Edition Department of pharmacology, University of Toronto.



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