تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Rational for having the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems as one block:

- The structure and functions of the two systems is complimentary to each in the sense that they are both responsible for delivery of oxygenated blood to the body;
- The symptoms of both systems are similar e.g. cough, shortness of breath, haemoptysis, chest pain;
- The presentation of cardiac and respiratory problems is very much similar – asthma, left ventricular failure, pulmonary infections;
- Having them as separate courses raised certain problems both by staff and students e.g. anatomy of the great vessels taught in the cardiovascular course when the student needs to know about it in the respiratory system.

Implementation of the New Block:

Duration : 16 weeks
Credit hours : 16

The Block is divided into two parts:
Part I : Duration : 8 weeks
Credit hours : 7
Part II : Duration : 8 weeks
Credit hours : 7

The primary function of the cardiorespiratory system is the transport and exchange of gases O2 between blood and inspired air, a process which is vital for cellular metabolism and the survival of the living organism.
In the human being this exchange takes place in about 250 million alveoli with a surface area of approximately 80 sq. meter, more than 50 times the skin surface area of an adult. Furthermore the entire cardiac output has to pass through the lungs. Thus one can imagine the vulnerability of the lung to insults from potentially harmful agents in the atmosphere; i.e. physical – chemical – biological, and also from noxious material carried by the blood, i.e. bacteria, thrombi, Antigen, Antibody complexes, etc. It is also of importance to mention that the respiratory tract is the portal of entery for an uncountable numbers of both harmless and pathogenic micro-organisms. Thus it is no wonder that respiratory diseases are among the commonest seen by doctors everywhere in the world and the study of the functions of this system and its diseases and their management is indispensable to the practicing doctor.
The ease with which organisms get access to the respiratory system created an enormous epidemic potential for such virulent organisms i.e. influenza, measles cerebrospinal meningitis and whooping cough. This also facilitated the endemicity of chronic infections like Tuberculosis which in this country is a great problem and a challenge for the health services. In dealing with respiratory tract problems awareness of socio-economic factors such as overcrowding, occupational hazards and nutrition is of paramount importance in implementing preventive and curative measures.
Heart failure is a common medical problem that affects patients of all age groups. It results from various aetiological and pathological processes. Rheumatic heart disease stands out as one of the commonest causes in this country, it affects young patients and it is preventable. Anaemia, another common problem in this country, might be complicated by heart failure. However, we are seeing more cases of ischaemic heart disease, manifesting as angina pectoris, left ventricular failure or acutely as acute myocardial infarction with all possible serious complications.
Hypertension is another common cardiovascular problem with far reaching complications involving the heart, kidneys and central nervous system (CNS); it is a major risk factor of ischaemic heart disease. Good control and management of hypertension, based on sound understanding helps to reduce its complications particularly on the kidneys and CNS.
A mention should be made of congenital problems involving this system (congenital heart disease), which is a common problem in paediatric practice, however one should not forget that some of these congenital problems might be seen in adults (atrial septal defect, coarctation, of the aorta).
Most patients with cardio-respiratory disease present with similar symptoms, e.g. cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and oftenly this thus difficult to make a final diagnosis without taking a good history, conducting thorough clinical examination and performing various investigations. For this reason it is thought that it would be more practical if this block is introduced as one unit.

Part I:

Will include most of the basic sciences: anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology of the common symptoms, e.g. cough, shortness of breath and pathology. This is going to be introduced by a common problems; a patient who presented with shortness of breath. This part also includes the common upper respiratory diseases and tuberculosis as well as Rheumatic fever. The student will be introduced to the examination of the cardiorespiratory system.



المحتويات


1 anatomy & function of nose, air sinuses, nasopharynx, larynx and ear
2 normal thoracic cage, its curvature and the anatomical explanation of pathological curves
3 Enumerate the difference between typical and atypical ribs and their clinical significance
4 different parts of the sternum and its significance as a land mark in clinical examination of cardio pulmonary system

5 a) surface anatomy of the chest, and the surface marks of the cardiopulmonary organs
b) innervations of the cardiopulmonary organs.

6 a normal chest X-ray (CXR) & the thoracic cage, lung fissures, lobes and segments
7 the intercostal space and its relevance in surgical procedures
8 primary and accessory muscles of respiration and the mechanisms of respiratory movements.

9 a) gross anatomy of the heart and vessels
b) histology and properties of cardiac muscle
c) initiation of cardiac impulse, excitation and contraction of the heart

10 microscopic anatomy of nose, nose-pharynx, larynx bronchial tree and the lung and their role in the body defense mechanisms
11 Outline the gross anatomy of the diaphragm its embryology and the clinical relevance of the latter
12 normal mechanism of ventilation and the changes that occur in common cardiopulmonary diseases

13 the significance of the lung volumes (graphic illustration):
- the tidal volume
- inspiratory reserve volume
- expiratory reserve volume
- residual volume
- vital capacity (VC)
- FCI and FVI
VC - the dead space

15 cardiac output, the two methods used in measuring it and the factors influencing it in health and disease, taking exercise and anaemia as examples respectively.
16 Automaticity and refractory period of cardiac muscle and the action of different drugs (e.g. adrenaline, nor adrenaline, acetylcholine, atropine, blockers and electrolytes)

17 a) mechanisms of:
i- normal heart sounds
ii- abnormal heart sounds in common heart diseases
b) mechanisms of:
i- normal breath sounds
ii- abnormal breath sounds in common respiratory diseases

18 exchange of gases in the alveoli and their transport in the blood. Discuss the 02 dissociation curve with graphic illustration
19 control of respiration, the role of chemo-and baro receptors & clinical examples where it is disturbed i.e. chyne stoke, Kussmal breathing
20 ENT examination and common abnormalities

21 respiratory and ENT problems, a proper history, elicit physical signs, the problem and the management of:
21.1 Breathlessness
21.2 Stridor
21.3 Haemoptasis
21.4 Chronic cough
21.5 Epistaxis

22 a patient with a cardiovascular problem be able to :
i- a good history including the onset and evolution of the condition with special reference to common cardiovascular symptoms including viz.
(a) breathlessness (orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea)
(b) Chest pain
(c) Swelling of the ankles
(d) Palpitations
(e) Syncope
being able to discuss the significance and underlying pathophysiology of each of these symptoms
ii- a systematic examination of the cardiovascular system noting:
(a) breathlessness (orthopnoea)
(b) cyanosis
(c) jugular venous pressure
(d) pulse, rate, rhythm, volume character, synchronicity, other pulses
(e) precordium

23 the epidemiology, pathophysiology "Including microbiology", clinical presentation, investigations, diagnosis, management and control of the following respiratory problems:
23.1 Pneumonias, bronchiactasis and lung abscess
23.2 Pulmonary tuberculosis
23.3 Adenoids infection, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media and its complication
23.4 Diphtheria
23.5 Whooping couth
23.6 Measles

24 a patient with one of the following problems:
- Acute Rheumatic Fever
- Epidemiology
- Aetiology
- Pathology
- Clinical features
- Investigations
- Diagnosis
- Short and long term complications
- Outline the management (medical and surgical)
- medical, surgical and PREVENTIVE
- Prevention



المنسقون


D. Wa'el Nuri
D. Marim Omer


المطلوبات



الأهداف


1)General Objectives:

There are the same previous objectives but they will be integrated. A new objective is added in part one. (At the end of the course the student should be able to discuss the pathophysiology of the common symptoms and signs e.g. cough, breathlessness, haemoptysis, chest pain, wheezes, crepitations, added sounds, murmurs).

2) Specific Objectives

At the end of the course the student should be able to:
2.1 Outline the anatomy & function of nose, air sinuses, nasopharynx, larynx and ear
2.2 Describe the normal thoracic cage, its curvature and the anatomical explanation of pathological curves
2.3 Enumerate the difference between typical and atypical ribs and describe their clinical significance
2.4 Describe the different parts of the sternum and its significance as a land mark in clinical examination of cardio pulmonary system
2.5 a) Describe the surface anatomy of the chest, and the surface marks of the cardiopulmonary organs
b) Describe the innervations of the cardiopulmonary organs.

2.6 Given a normal chest X-ray (CXR) describe the thoracic cage, lung fissures, lobes and segments
2.7 Describe the contents of the intercostal space and its relevance in surgical procedures
2.8 Discuss the primary and accessory muscles of respiration and the mechanisms of respiratory movements.

2.9 a) Describe the gross anatomy of the heart and vessels
b) Describe the histology and properties of cardiac muscle
c) Describe the initiation of cardiac impulse, excitation and contraction of the heart

2.10 Describe the microscopic anatomy of nose, nose-pharynx, larynx bronchial tree and the lung and their role in the body defense mechanisms
2.11 Outline the gross anatomy of the diaphragm its embryology and the clinical relevance of the latter
2.12 Describe the normal mechanism of ventilation and the changes that occur in common cardiopulmonary diseases

2.13 Define and describe with graphic illustration the significance of these lung volumes:
- the tidal volume
- inspiratory reserve volume
- expiratory reserve volume
- residual volume
- vital capacity (VC)
- FCI and FVI
VC - the dead space

And discuss the importance of measuring these lung volumes in disease i.e. in chronic obstructive air way diseases - pneumoconiosis. Define standard conditions for measurement of gas volumes, mechanisms of diffusion and gas partial pressure in the atmosphere, the alveolar air, Arterial and venous blood, also outline changes in disease.

2.14 Use Using a diagram to describe the cardiac cycle and discussing the relationship between different cardiac events
2.15 Define the cardiac output, the two methods used in measuring it and the factors influencing it in health and disease, taking exercise and anaemia as examples respectively.
2.16 Explain what is meant by:
Automaticity and refractory period of cardiac muscle and the action of different drugs (e.g. adrenaline, nor adrenaline, acetylcholine, atropine, blockers and electrolytes)

2.17 a) Describe the mechanisms of:
i- normal heart sounds
ii- abnormal heart sounds in common heart diseases
b) Describe the mechanisms of:
i- normal breath sounds
ii- abnormal breath sounds in common respiratory diseases

2.18 Describe the exchange of gases in the alveoli and their transport in the blood. Discuss the 02 dissociation curve with graphic illustration
2.19 Describe the control of respiration, the role of chemo-and baro receptors. Give clinical examples where it is disturbed i.e. chyne stoke, Kussmal breathing
2.20 Perform an ENT examination and recognize common abnormalities

2.21 Given a patient with the following respiratory and ENT problems, take a proper history, elicit physical signs, define the problem and discuss the management of:
2.21.1 Breathlessness
2.21.2 Stridor
2.21.3 Haemoptasis
2.21.4 Chronic cough
2.21.5 Epistaxis

2.22 Faced with a patient with a cardiovascular problem be able to :
i- take a good history including the onset and evolution of the condition with special reference to common cardiovascular symptoms including viz.
(a) breathlessness (orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea)
(b) Chest pain
(c) Swelling of the ankles
(d) Palpitations
(e) Syncope
being able to discuss the significance and underlying pathophysiology of each of these symptoms
ii- Perform a systematic examination of the cardiovascular system noting:
(a) breathlessness (orthopnoea)
(b) cyanosis
(c) jugular venous pressure
(d) pulse, rate, rhythm, volume character, synchronicity, other pulses
(e) precordium

Inspection and Palpation

For pulsations, deformity apex beat; site, character, presence or absence of: thrills, left parasternal heave, pulmonary shot.
Auscultation of the heart (4 areas of auscultation and any other relevant areas) commenting on First and Second heart sounds. Added sounds, Murmurs - systolic or diastolic.
Site best heard at; radiation character
Relation to inspiration and expiration

2.23 Describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology "Including microbiology", clinical presentation, investigations, diagnosis, management and control of the following respiratory problems:
2.23.1 Pneumonias, bronchiactasis and lung abscess
2.23.2 Pulmonary tuberculosis
2.23.3 Adenoids infection, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media and its complication
2.23.4 Diphtheria
2.23.5 Whooping couth
2.23.6 Measles

2.24 Given a patient with one of the following problems, describe and discuss aspects
- mentioned next to each:
- Acute Rheumatic Fever
- Epidemiology
- Aetiology
- Pathology
- Clinical features
- Investigations
- Diagnosis
- Short and long term complications
- Outline the management (medical and surgical)
- medical, surgical and PREVENTIVE
- Prevention



طرق التدريس


Practicals including practicals in physiology e.g. lung functions, action of different drugs on the cardiac muscle
Lectures
Surveys e.g. hypertension, smoking, lung diseases
Seminars in common problems e.g. T.B., heart failure.
Problem solving a trial of a small group system
Demonstrations: heart sounds Lung sounds
Reading Assignments



المصادر


1) HUMAN RESOURCES:

PerAnatomist
Physiologist
Physicians
Paediatrician
Surgeon
Epidemiologist
Pathologist
Radiologist
Cardiologist
ENT specialist

2) PHISICAL RESOURCES:

Tape slide projector
Laboratory (basic skill and physiology)
Stethoscopes
ECG Machine
Sphygmomanometers
Vitilograph
Tape record player
Computer, multimedia and screen
Black and white boards
Dissection room and cadavers



وسائل التقويم


MCQs 40%
Written paper: one problem, one long essay, short questions 30%
OSCE meant for a good evaluation in anatomy And pathology 20%
Attendance and performance 10%



المراجع


(Medical Library)
(Audio-visual Aids)

Anatomy (611)
Cunningham Manual of Anatomy
Last Anatomy
Gray’s anatomy

Physiology (612)
Medical physiology (Large)
Introduction to Human Physiology (Green)
Review of medical physiology (Ganong)
Companion to medical studies vol. II

General Medicine
Davidson`s Principles and Practice of Medicine
Hutchison`s clinical
Harrison`s Principles of Internal Medicine
Human Anatomy (Atlas)
B.D.S. Textbook for Biochemistry and Physiology
Respiratory Medicine M. Schonell
Miure’s Textbook of Pathology
Last's Anatomy Regional and Applied – Edited by R.M.H McMINN.
Functional HUMAN ANATOMY – Prof. QURASHI M.ALI & Prof. TAHER OSMAN ALI.
Clinical Anatomy – RICHARD S.SNELL
SADLER – MEDICAL EMBRYOLOGY
Cunninghams - Manual of practical Anatomy
BASIC HISTOLOGY
Lecture note in ear, nose and throat



الجدول الزمني

الأسبوع الأول
الأحد: 18/9/2016
9 – 10ص
مقدمة المقرر د. مريم عمر قرشي - د. وائل نوري
11 - 12 المعالم العامة للجهاز الدوري التنفسي Outlining of the cardiopulmonary system أ.هناء
12-1 التطور الجنيني للجهاز التنفسي و القلب Embryology of the respiratory system & the heart د. مهدى صالح
1 - 3 الآلية الطبيعية للتهوية Mechanism of ventilation د. مريم عمر قرشي
الاثنين: 19/9/2016
½ 8 - ½9 ص
التشريح المجهري للأنف والخيشوم والجيوب الأنفية Microscobical structure of the nose, pharynx & air sinuses د. مهدي
½10-12 ص 11 - 3م الحجوم والسعات الرئوية Lung volumes & capacity تشريح القفص الصدري Dissection: the thoracic cage د. مريم عمر قرشي د. مهدى صالح أ. حليمه أ. سوزي أ. هناء ا. وفاء
الثلاثاء: 20/9/2016
½ 8 – ½ 9 ص
الحالات الغازية المعيارية، الضغط الجزئي الغازي وآلية الانتشار
تشريح القفص الصدري Dissection: the thoracic cage
د. مريم عمر قرشي د. مهدي أ. حليمه أ. سوزي أ. هناء ا. وفاء
الأربعاء: 21/9/2016 طولاني
الخميس:22/9/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
تبادل ونقل الأكسجين ومنحي تفارق الأكسجين Oxygen transport& Haemoglobin dissociation curve د. مريم عمر قرشي
11- 3 الوصف التشريحي للأنف والجيوب الأنفية والخيشوم والحنجرة Demonstration: nose, air sinuses nasopharynx & larynx د. مهدي
أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي - أ. هناء ا. وفاء
الأحد: 25/9/2016
½ 8 – ½ 9 ص
التشريح المجهري لمجاري التنفس السفلي :القصبة - الشجرة - والحويصلات الرئوية Microscopic structure of the lower airways : trachea, bronchial tree & alveoli د. مهدي
10 - 12 توضيح ومناقشة التركيب المجهري لعضلة القلب Demonstration & discussion of the microscopic structure of the cardiac muscle أ.هناء
12-3 إثارة-توصيل – تقلص العضلة القلبية Excitation, conduction &contraction of the cardiac muscle د. ناهد أحمد محمد
الاثنين:26/9/2016
½ 8 -10 ص
التركيب المجهري للاوعية الدموية Microscopic structure of the blood vessels أ.هناء
11 - ½12 الدورة القلبية The Cardiac Cycle د. ناهد أحمد محمد
1-3 عملي وظائف الأعضاء Physiology: practical شعبة وظائف الأعضاء
الثلاثاء: 27/9/2016
½ 8 - ½ 10 ص
الأصوات القلبية وأصوات التنفس الطبيعية Normal heart & respiratory sounds د. عبد الله عبد الكريم
12-3 تشريح المنصف الأمامي والرئة Dissection: Anterior Mediastinum & Lung د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي - أ. هناء - ا. وفاء
الأربعاء:28/9/2016 طولانــــــي
الخميس:29/9/2016 اختياري
الأحد: 2/10/2016
½ 8 - 10 ص
الناتج القلبي والدم الوريدي الراجع (1) Cardiac output & venous return د. ناهد أحمد محمد
10- ½ 11 مقدمة مشكلة رقم (1): الصريرSTRIDOR د. موسي مصطفي سعد
12- 3 تشريح المنصف العلوي Dissection: Superior Mediastinum د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي - أ. هناء- ا. وفاء
الأثنين: 3/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
10½- 11
مشكلة رقم (1) : الصرير: عمل المجموعات
الناتج القلبي والدم الوريدي الراجع (2) Cardiac output & venous return
د. ناهد أحمد محمد
1-3 عملي وظائف الأعضاء شعبة وظائف الأعضاء
الثلاثاء: 4/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
اختياري
10 -½ 12 فسيولوجيا ضغط الدم Physiology of blood pressure د. عصام محمد عبد الله
12-3 تشريح المنصف الأوسط Dissection: Middle Mediastinum د. مهدي أ. حليمه أ. سوزي أ. هناء ا. وفاء
الأربعاء:5/10/2016 طولانــــي
الخميس:6/10/2016
½ 8 – ½ 9 ص
تنظيم الدورة الدموية Regulation of systemic circulation (1) تنظيم الدورة الدموية د. ناهد أحمد محمد
½10- ½12 تنظيم الدورة الدموية Regulation of systemic circulation (2) د. ناهد أحمد محمد
1-3 تشريح المنصف الأوسط Dissection: Middle Mediastinum د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي – أ. هناء - ا. وفاء
الأحد: 9/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
مناقشة المشكلة رقم (1) د. موسي مصطفي سعد
½10-½12 عملي وظائف الأعضاء: القلب شعبة وظائف الأعضاء
1-3 اختياري
الأثنين:10/10/2015
½ 8 - 10 ص
مقدمة المشكلة رقم (2): نزيف الأنف (الرعاف) Epistaxis د. وائل نوري
11-1 نقل الغازات ودور الرئة في تنظيم حموضة الدم Transport of blood gasses & role of the lung in Ph control د. مريم عمر قرشي
3-1 اختياري
الثلاثاء:11/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
إمراضية إصابات صمامات القلب Pathology of Cardiac valve lesions ب. محمداني
½10 – ½12 الفسيلوجيا المرضية لأعراض وعلامات أمراض الجهاز القلبى الدوري The pathophysiology of symptoms & signs of the cardiovascular diseases د. مصطفي ابراهيم
3-1 المشكلة رقم (2): نزف الأنف/ الرعاف: عمل المجموعات
الأربعاء:12/10/2016 طولانــــي
الخميس:13/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
الأحياء الدقيقة المسببة للخمج والإنتان الرئوي Bacteriology of pneumonia د. محمد الحسن طه
½10-12 إمراضية الانتان الرئوي Pathology of pneumonia د. ندى سليمان
3 - 12½ تشريح المنصف الخلفي والحجاب الحاجز Dissection: Posterior Mediastinum & the Diaphrgam د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي - أ. هناء - ا. وفاء
الأحد:16/10/2016
½ 8 - 10 ص
الاختبار الضابط لعملية التنفس control of respiration د. مريم عمر قرشي
½10 - ½12 ذات الرئة Pneumonia د. محمود حسين صالح
3-1 الفسيلوجيا المرضية لأعراض والعلامات لأمراض الجهاز التنفسي Pathophysiology of the Symptoms & Signs of the Respiratory System د. أحمد عوض الكريم
الاثنين:17/10/2016
½ 8 - 10 ص
مناقشة المشكلة رقم (2): نزف الأنف د. وائل نوري
11- 1 تشريح مراجعة الجهاز الدوري د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي – أ. هناء
1 - 3 اختياري
الثلاثاء:18/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
وبائية مرض السل وكيفية التحكم في المرض د. ابتسام محمد البشير
½10 - 12 اختياري
12 - 3 تشريح مراجعة د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي –أ. هناء- ا. وفاء
الأربعاء:19/10/2016 طولانـــي
الخميس:20/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
مقدمة المشكلة رقم (3): السعال Cough د. محمد البشرى
3-10½ مرور سريري: 1) د. محمود حسين 9) د. سيد البشرى 2) د. حسين زيدان 10) د. موسي مصطفي 3) د. عبد الله عبد الكريم 11) د. هاشم التوم 4) د. محمد إبراهيم مالك 12) د. هشام مصطفى الطيب 5) د. عابدة بابكر 13) د. صلاح الأمين 6) د. أحمد عوض الكريم 14) د. حبيب الله هجو 7) د. نصر الدين يوسف 15) د. منى إبراهيم 8) د. معاوية البلال 16) د. جورج ظريف 17) د. الفاضل عيسى 18) د. عبدالسلام الطيب 19) ب. هدى هارون 20) د. فوزية يوسف حماد 21) د. الوليد عبدالجبار 22) د. محمد البشرى
الأحد: 23/10/2016
½ 8 - 10 ص
علم أمراض الأحياء الدقيقة المسببة للسل Microbiology & pathology of tuberculosis د. محمد الحسن طه+ د. هند
12 - 3 تشريح مراجعة د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي –أ. هناء- ا. وفاء
الاثنين:24/10/2016
½ 8 - 10 ص
علم الأمراض لخراج الرئة وتوسيع القصيبات Pathology of broncheictasis & lung abscess د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي –أ. هناء- ا. وفاء
الثلاثاء:25/10/2016
½ 8- ½ 9 ص
الخانوق Dyphtheria ب. علي بابكر حبور
11 – 3 التهاب اللوزتين الغدانيات وبحة الصوت Tonsillitis, adenoiditis& hoarsoness of voice الحمى الرثوية الحادة Acute Rheumatic fever ب. عثمان محمد مصطفى د. هشام مصطفى الطيب
الأربعاء:26/10/2016 طولانــــي
الخميس:27/10/2016
½ 8 - ½ 9 ص
مناقشة المشكلة رقم (3) مرور سريري: 1) د. محمود حسين 2) د. حسين زيدان 3) د. عبد الله عبد الكريم 4) د. محمد إبراهيم مالك 5) د. عابدة بابكر 6) د. أحمد عوض الكريم 7) د. صلاح الأمين 8) د. نصر الدين يوسف 9) د. معاوية البلال 10) د. هشام مصطفى الطيب 11) د. منى إبراهيم د. محمد البشرى 12) د. هاشم التوم 13) د. سيد بشرى 14) د. جورج ظريف 15) د. الفاضل عيسى 16) د. موسي مصطفي سعد 17) ب. هدى هارون 18) د. عبدالسلام الطيب 19) د. فوزية يوسف حماد 20) د. الوليد عبدالجبار 21) د. محمد البشرى 22) د. حبيب الله هجو
الأحد: 30/10/2016
8½- ½ 9 ص
الحصبة Measles ب. حيدر الهادي بابكر
10 - 2 الشاهوق (السعال الديكي) Whooping cough ب. علي بابكر حبور
الإثنين: 31/10/2016
8 - ½ 9 ص
طرق التقويم و كيفية اداء الامتحان بالصورة المثلى المنسقون
½ 10 - 3 تشريح مراجعة د. مهدي أ. حليمه - أ. سوزي – أ. هناء- ا. وفاء
الثلاثاء:1/11/2016 اختياري
الأربعاء:2/11/2016 طولانــــي
الخميس:3/11/2016 اختياري
الأحد:6/11/2016 اختياري
الاثنين:7/11/2016 اختياري
الثلاثاء:8/11/2016 الامتحان التحريري: - الأسئلة متعددة الخيارات MCQs
- المقالات Essays
المنسقون
الأربعاء9/11/2016 طولانــــي
الخميس:10/11/2016 الامتحان العملي الموضوعي البنوي OSPE المنسقون

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