تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


It is important for medical professionals to be acquainted with communication concepts and equibed with the necessary communication skills, needed in the medical practice.
To practice medicine properly and successfully a student needs to acquire certain skills and abilities which will enable him/her to reach the correct diagnosis and prescribe solution for a medical problem facing an individual.
The acquisition of these skills and abilities are even more crucial in the Sudan, because as any other developing country, Sudan is facing a shortage of trained medical and health support facilities, personnel and equipments. Hence the need for the student to base his/her decision on sound clinical knowledge and judgement by taking a careful history from the patient conducting through medical examination and performing laboratory test which are relevant, inexpensive and practical.



المحتويات


1 Basic interpersonal communication concepts
2 Patient centered Medicine
3 Common Communication tasks and functions
4 Group dynamics
5 Computer search for information
6 Use of audio visual equipment to prepare a presentation
7 Communication of bad news
8 Family support influence on Health outcomes, family members as care givers.



المنسقون



المطلوبات



الأهداف


1) General Objectives:
To study communication concepts , skills and basic skills related to the study of medicine . The student should acquire the important basic skills which will enable him/her to reach the correct diagnosis to a medical problem facing a patient and help him/her in the management of that problems.

2) Specific objectives:

By the end of this course the student should be able to:
2.1 Describe basic interpersonal communication concepts
2.2 Explain the meaning and rationale for patient centered medicine
2.3 Develop presentation skills
2.4 Develop an appreciation of the inter- personal and situation dynamics of medical encounters.
2.5 Enumerate and explain common communication tasks and functions
2.6 Manage reactions for bad news
2.7 Develop a base of skills and strategies to work with family members.
2.8 Request the relevant laboratory investigations and fill in properly the different laboratory forms
2.9 Prepare laboratory specimens properly and transport them safely

2.10 Do the following laboratory tests :
URINE :
a- General inspection (colour, smell, turbidity)
b- Determine specific gravity
c- Determine the pH
d- Test for sugar
e- Test for acetone
f- Test for bile pigment
g- Test for albumin
h- Identify RBC in the deposit
i- Identify casts in the deposit
j- Identify crystals in the deposit
k- Identify pus cells in the deposit
l- Identify S. haematobium eggs in the deposit
m- Measure 24 hour urinary protein (Esbach)
n- Perform pregnancy test

2.11 STOOLS
a- General inspection (colour, smell, consistency e.g. solid, fluid, bulky)
b- Identify pus cell
c- Identify mucus
d- Identify RBC
e- Identify parasites e.g. S. mansoni ova, Ascaris Ankylestome ova, Taenia, oxyurius Amoeba, Giardia
f- Test for occult blood

2.12 Blood
a- Prepare B.F.(blood film) for malaria (staining)
c- B.F. for cell morphology including sickle cells
d- Hb. estimation using Sahli's method
e- White cell count (Total & differential)
f- Platelet count
g- Packed cell volume PCV
h- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR
i- Reticulecyte count and staining
j- Blood grouping and cross matching
k- Bone marrow for leishmaniasis (LDB)

2.13 SWABS & CULTURES
a- Prepare swabs from different sites e.g. throat, wound, vagina, nose, and send them safely to the lab
b- Prepare cultures from different specimen e.g.
- sputum ---- urine
- blood --- stool

2.14 SPUTUM
a- Sputum gram stain for bacteria
b- Sputum Ziel Neilson (ZN) stain for T.B. (A.A.F.B.)
c- Sputum culture a sensitivity
d- Hand stain for cells

2.15 Do the following procedures:
1. Parenteral therapy in children and adults (intra-muscular lM, Intravenous l.V.)
2. Intraperitoneal infusion in children
3. Venesection in children and cannulation
4. Taking blood samples from different sites in children and adults e.g. jugular veins, heal, femoral vein, cubital vein, veins in the dorsum of the hand

5. Carry out anthropometric measures on children e.g. head circumference, height and weight
- Insertion of NGT
- Apply oxygen mask and steam tent
- Use the diagnostic set
- Incise superficial abscesses
- Dress superficial wounds
- Suture superficial wounds
- Immobilize fractures
- Apply and remove plasters
- Nurse unconscious patient
- Measure temperature in children and adult
- Measure blood pressure
-
2.16 See demonstration of the following and identify instruments used for them
- Rectal examination
- Lumbar puncture (L.P.) in children and adults
- Abdominal paracentesis in children and adults
- Bone marrow puncture in children and adults
- Proctoscopy
- Sigmoidoscopy
- Catheterization
- Urethral dilatation
- Electrocardiography (ECG) tracing
- Endotracheal intubation
- Vaginal examination'
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Enema in adults

2.17 Identify the common surgical and obstetrical instruments in the operating theatre:
Surgical
Sigmoidoscope, proctoscope, oesophagoscope
Bronchoscope; needles; suture materials,
urinary catheters, sounds (dilators),
laryngoscope, endotracheal tube, Airway, Artery forceps
tissue forceps, retractors, etc..
Obstetrical
Forceps; speculum (sims & cuscos), Hegars
dilators, uterine sound.



طرق التدريس


1 Lectures - 2- Seminars
3 Assignments - 4- Small group work
5 Demonstration - 6- Practical



المصادر


1) Human Resources:

Room to accommodate students
- Multimedia
- Hospital wards
- Operating theatres
- Laboratory
- Electronic lab
Physician, Surgeons, Paediatrician, Obstetician, Pathologists, Lab assistants, sisters, Anaesthetist, nurses Teaching assistan, registrars & technicians

2) Physical resources:

Tape programmes
a. ST 187 sururing of small wounds 39 min
b. ST 148 suturing
c. S12 collection of blood for examination of malaria parasites.
d. S13 staining of slides for examination of malaria parasites in blood.



وسائل التقويم


1 Attendance & performance --- 20%
2 OSPE --- 60%
3 Written examination --- 20%



المراجع


1 .Richmond, V. & Mccroskey, J. & Mccroskey, L. Izational: Communication For Survival: Making Work, Allyn & Bacon, 2005.
2.Beardsley, R.&. Kimberlin, C. & Tindall, W: Communication Skills in Pharmacy Practice, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. U.S.A. 2007.
3. Sidell, N :Professional Communication Skills in Social Work, Allyn & Bacon, 2007.
4. Owen, H: The Handbook of Communication Skills, 3ed, Routledge, U.S.A, 2002.
5. Whaley, B.& Wendy, S. Explaining Communication : Contemporary Theories and Exemplars, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, U.S.A,2006.
6.1Humlehmsans clinical methods



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