تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Primary health care is defined by the Alma-Ata conference in 1978 as "Essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made university accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and constitute the first element of a continuing health care process.
The Sudan is adopting the PHC approach to achieve the goal of Health For All By The Year 2000.



المحتويات



المنسقون



المطلوبات


COURSES OF SEMESTER 1 TO 6


الأهداف


1) General objectives:

This course is offered to enable the student to take an active part in the delivery of PHC at the level of the family and to ensure the continuation of that service at the Health Centre. The rational behind that is not only improving the quality of the service being offered but to ensure its continuity and to approach the tatrogenic gap between the family where medical problems can be detected early and the health centre where active management is rendered.
Provision of Medical Service has usually been looked at as an individual problem being practiced in isolation of the family and the environment. A holistic approach should be taken and the different factors and variables which affect the health of the individual whether negatively or positively should be considered.
The knowledge of the variables which affect the health of the individual at the family level is of prime importance. These include the socioeconomic status the educational status and the religion status of the family.
The concept of PHCCP and FM is to have a comprehensive approach to individuals health problems and to look at the individual as part of a unit that is the family with which he reacts and interacts.
This course also include epidemiological princeiples, statistical concepts and the detailed study the common tropical diseases.
Such a practice will make the health service accessible to families and enables the student to identify the common health problem which affect the individual the family and the community.

2) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES & CONTENTS:

At the end of the PHCCP course the student is expected to be able to:
1 Define PHC and discuss the rationale and concept of PHC, discuss the concept of health for all by the year 2000 and concept and strategies of health promotion
2 List and discuss the 8 components of PHC and new concepts in PHC.
3 Identify and discuss the role of the community and its involvement in PHC
4 Describe the various functions of the health centre
5 Define all health personnel in the health centre and outline how they are selected, supervised and their job description and discuss the referral pattern between health centres and secondary health care facilities
6 Observe, comment, advice and evaluate PHC implementation in the HC
7 Describe and discuss the PHC programme in the Sudan, its objectives components, implementation, national and international support management and administration
8 To develop a comprehensive look to the practice of medicine during health or illness in the individual, the family and the community
9 To be able to analyse the social structure of the Sudanese community
10 To compare nuclear, extended. Open and closed families and their effect on the individuals behaviour and health
11 To discuss how these variables affect the health of family; socioeconomic status, education, religion, family size, environmental sanitation, housing, life style urbanization and rurality
12 To develop a searching negustive attitude to understand and diagnose problems of Sudanese families
13 To have compassion sympathy and sincere interest to help people
14 To assess and deal effectively with multiple problems occurring stimultaneously in one family
15 To have strong wish to maintain a maximum patients satisfaction and recognizing the need for continuing patients rapport
16 To give support specify children during their growth and development and help them to adjust themselves to family and community and to promote family practice.
17 To assist patients in coping with the health related problems and to maintain a homestatic posture in the family and community
18 To act as a promotor and provider of preventive as well as curative medicine
19 To coordinate and work as a part of a team for achieving a better understanding and management of the individual, family and community problems
20 To have the desire to identify problems at the earliest possible stage or prevent disease entirely
21 To develop an appreciation for coplexity of the physical emotional and social component in the holistic approach
22 To develop the feeling of personal satisfaction from the incimate relationships with patients naturally developing over long periods of continuous care as opposed to the short-term rewards gained from treating episodic illness
23 To develop a skill and commitment to educate patients and families about disease process the principle of health management and its prevention
24 To gain the confidence of the individual, family and community through his dedication honesty and his clear genuine desire to help
25 To show respect of the individual members of families on home visits and should show disgust or an air of superiority. No previllages should be expected

26 Deliver and participate actively in the delivery of PHC in family and HC and improve the quality of PHC offered in both. In the HC the student is expected to do the following:
26.1 Provide primary medical care
26.2 Deliver and participate in the delivery of MCH and FP services
26.3 Participate in the immunization programme
26.4 Observe, give advice, suggest plans on the nutritional status of the community and family especially for groups at risk
26.5 Observe, environmental and basic sanitation, suggest plans for improvement and give health education concerning water supply, personal hygiene, sewage disposal etc.
26.6 Identify the communicable and endemic diseases present in the community and advice in their control and prevention
26.7 Identify the simple health data to be collected and suggest a simple information systems
26.8 Observe, advice and encourage community participation and team work for the effective implementation of PHC
26.9 Give health education to the community and family
26.10 Write a critical report about his work in the HC including self evaluation

27 Identify and describe the organizational structure of health services in the Sudan
28 Discuss in details the common endemic diseases in the community e.g. malaria
29 Discuss the statistical and epidemiological concepts and methods which are of importance in health care delivery and in planning implementation and education of PHC.
30 Describe the philosophy of community medicine and concept of health and disease.
31 Identify sources and types of health information and methods of their collection.
32 Identify vital and health indicators and their utilization.
33 Discuss the natural history of disease, mode of transmission and factors affect its occurrence and distribution.
34 Describe and analyses the community health status.
35 Utilize epidemiology and research epidemiological methods in disease prevention and health services planning.
36 Discuss epidemic control steps.



طرق التدريس


1 Practice in Health Centre
2 Tutorials and small group discussions
3 Lecture / Discussion
4 Visits to Families
5 Presentations and discussions of families problems



المصادر


1 Human Resources:

1.1 Community physicians
1.2 paediatricians
1.3 obstetricians and gynaecologists,
1.4 physicians
1.5 family physicians
1.6 health centres medical officers
1.7 field supervisors and para-medicals

2 Physical Resources

2.1 Room for 250 students
2.2 Overhead projector
2.3 Transportation to Health Centres and Families



وسائل التقويم


Methods of Studentsُ assessment: (Phase 1, 2, 3).

1 Product of individual work and performance
1.1 attendance (HC, families, class activities). --- 25%
1.2 log book + family report. --- 20%
1.3 feedback from families
1.4 presentations of family problems

2 Area activities (field supervision).
3 written examination:
MCQs --- 10%
Single best answer --- 10%
Essays --- 20%
Written family problem --- 5%
OSCE --- 10%
4 Feedback questionnaire.

Methods of Studentsُ assessment (Phase 4):

1 - Essays --- 40%
2 - Famliy problem --- 10%
3 - A/P (HC, Family, class activities). --- 30%
4 - Log book & family report --- 20%



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