تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Bone, joint and soft tissue injuries from accidents are the commonest cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries and are much on the increase in the Sudan and other developing countries. Bone and joint infections (e.g. acute and chronic osteomyelitis, tuberculosis etc..) are not uncommon. Rheumatic disorders affecting the musclo-skeletal system take up a great deal of time in general practice. Widespread weakness, paralysis (e.g. in poliomyelitis) and wasting of muscle are not rare in this country.
To understand the process of these various disorders and to be able to manage them, it is important to have sound knowledge of the structure and function of the musculo-skeletal system.



المحتويات


1 Development and growth of bone
2 Histology of bone cartilage & connective tissues,
3 Topographical anatomy of the shoulder & axilla & upper limb.
4 Collagen structure, function & Related problems
5 Pathology of Common problems of the Breast.
6 Metabolism of Calcium & phosphours & Related Disorders
7 Common Muscloskeletal injuries
8 Muscle Physiology
9 Common Muscloskeletal injuries classification of fractures outline of management



المنسقون


Dr. Mahdi Ali Salih
Dr. Ahmed Makki
Dr. Mogahid Mahmoud


المطلوبات


None


الأهداف


1) GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this course the student is expected to have an enough background in the structure, function and pathological manifestations of the musculo-skeletal system to understand its various common disorders, and manage some of the common injuries and diseases of bones and joints.

2) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this course, the student should be able to:
1 Classify bone into four types according to shape and list the different function of bone
1.1 Recognize and name of the different parts of the skeleton articulated or non-articulated
1.2 Recognize the bones of the upper limb and describe the general features of each bone
1.3Outline limb development and describe growth and development of bone
1.4 Describe the anatomical differences between the male and female bony pelvis
1.5 Classify fractures and relate that to healing
1.6 In an X-ray recognize the bones of the skeleton and recognize and diagnose common fracture
1.7 Give the general outline of how to manage fracture of the femoral neck, and supracondylar facture if given as a case or written problem
1.8Fix a Thoma`s splint and apply plaster for a fracture in one of the limbs
1.9 Discuss the pathology and the clinical picture of osteomyelitis and tuberculosis of bone and outline their management
1.10 Discuss the different types of metabolic and degenerative diseases of bones and joints including rheumatoid artheritis and its varieties, gout and pseudogout
1.11 Discuss the pathology, clinical picture and outline management of connective tissue and callagen diseases including S.L.E., S. sclerosis polyarteritis nodosa
1.12 Discuss the pathology and clinical picture of common neoplastic condition of bones and outline the management

2 Classify joints and give an example of each type:
2.1 Describe the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, hand and feet joints and list movements that occur in each of them and mention the muscles that bring about each movement
2.2 Describe the main clinical features and outline the treatment of injuries of joints such as sprain dislocations, traumatic synovitis, haemarthrosis, and different types of artheritis
2.3 Explain clinically and systematically the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints.
2.4 In an X-ray diagnose common types of dislocations of the shoulder, hip and elbow joints
2.5 Outline the management of the dislocation of the shoulder, hip and elbow joints
2.6 Describe the common injuries of the knee joint and outline the management

3 Identify in a dissected specimen the muscles, the main vessels, and their important branches and the major nerves of the upper and lower limbs and their important relations:
3.1Identify the dermatomes of the upper and lower limbs in the body and mention the nerve supply to the major group of muscle. Discuss the clinical significance of this.
3.2 Discuss the blood supply of the upper and lower limbs
3.3Discuss briefly the injuries of nerves in the upper and lower limbs
3.4 Discuss the physiology of the nerve and their mechanism of action
3.5 Discuss the anatomy of the hand and outline the management of hand injuries

4 Describe cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle and identify them in a histological section
5 Define : Epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, fascicle, tendon, appeneurosis,. Multipennate
6 Discuss briefly the type of muscle bands and physiology of each type
7 Describe the ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junction and discuss the mechanism of neuromuscular transmission and relate it to myasthonia gravis and neuromuscular blocking agents.
8 Discuss the pathology, clinical picture and outline the management of important muscular diseases
9 Define what is a sarcomere and describe the sliding filament hypothesis
10 Discuss the role of calcium in muscle contraction
11 Discuss the metabolic disorder of the bones and their manifestation
12 Define : minimal stimulus, maximal stimulus, all or non law, and absolute refractory period
13 Describe or illustrate by diagram the twitch response and how it differs in slow and fast muscle
14 Describe or illustrate by diagram isotonic or isometric contraction, summation and tetanic contraction
15 Discuss and give examples of energy sources in muscle
16 Discuss the thermodynamic principles of muscle contraction
17 Discuss the causes of muscle fatigue after prolonged exercise
18 Discuss the micro and macroanatomy of the mammary gland and discuss briefly he common pathological conditions of the mammary gland outline their management



طرق التدريس


1 Lectures
2 Lecture - Discussion
3 Tape slide and films
4 Tutorials
5 Practical
6 Dissection
7 Ward round
8 Seminars
9 Case demonstration



المصادر


1. Human resources:

1.1 Anatomists
1.2 Physiologist
1.3 Pathologist
1.4 Surgeons (and an orthopaedic surgeon)
1.5 Radiologist

2. Physical resources:

2.1 Tape slide projector and tape slide units No. ST 222, ST 219, ST 221, ST 236, ST 229
2.2 16 mm machine and Films No. F 72, 73, 22, 23, 37, 40, 39, 21, 25, 74, 26, 75, 76, 28, 27, 29, 77, 30, 31, 32, 78
2.3 Bodies for dissection
2.4 Instruments for dissection
2.5 Skeletons (articulated
2.6 Computer - CDR
2.7 Anatomy muesuyn
2.8 Dissection room
2.9 Rooms for tutorials
2.10 Surgical wards



وسائل التقويم


1 Attendance and performance in tutorials --- %10
2 Practical - Identification of structures:
3 MCQs --- % 40
4 OSPE --- % 30
5 Essays --- % 20



المراجع


1 Companion to Medical Studies vol. I
2 Clinical Anatomy (Harold Ellis)
3 Review of Medical Physiology (Ganong)
4 An Introduction to Human Physiology (Green)
5 A system of Orthopaedics (Graham Apley)
6 Cunningham Manual of Practical Anatomy (vol. 1)
7 A manual of Human Anatomy (vol III)
8 Anatomy Regional & Applied Blast



الجدول الزمني

Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Jamal Yassin

Dr. Ahmed Makki
(Introduction of anatomy (Lecture

(Introduction of problem 1 (shoulder dislocation

(Introduction of anatomy (Lecture

SUNDAY:16/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-1:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki
(Introduction of anatomy (Lecture

(Introduction of anatomy (Lecture

(Development of musculoskeletal system (Lecture

MONDAY :17/4/2017
11:00-12.30

12.30-2:00

2:00-3:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki
(Histology of connective tissues (Lecture

(Histology of bone & cartilage (Lecture

(Histology muscle tissue (Lecture

TUESDAY:18/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-1:30
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 19/4/2017
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Mariam Omer

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Bones of the upper limb (Lecture

(Physiology of nerves 1 (Lecture

(Bones of the upper limb (practical

THURSDAY:20/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Abdelrahman Ahmed

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Muscles of the back & pectoral region and shoulder region (Lecture

(Physiology of nerves 1 (Lecture

(Muscles of the back (practical

SUNDAY:23/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Mahdi Ali Salih

Dr. Mariam Omer

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Anatomy of the breast (Lecture

(Neural synapse (Lecture

(Pectoral region & shoulder region & breast (practical

MONDAY :24/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Nisreen Mohammed

Dr. Hiba Mahjoob

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Axilla and Arm (Lecture

(Physiology of muscles 1 (Lecture

(Calcium &phosphates metabolism (Lecture

(Axilla and Arm (practical

TUESDAY:25/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-1:00

1:00-3:30
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 26/4/2017
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Prof. Mohamadani

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Anterior compartment of the forearm (Lecture

(Breast diseases &common diseases (Lecture

(Anterior compartment of the forearm (practical

THURSDAY:27/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Prof. Ahmed Elamin Elshakh

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Posterior compartment of the forearm & dorsum of the hand (Lecture

(Causes of breast diseases and investigation (Lecture

Posterior compartment of the forearm & dorsum of the hand ((practical

SUNDAY:30/4/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Abdelrahman Ahmed

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Palm of the Hand (Lecture

(Nerve injury+ surface marking of the upper limb (Lecture

(Physiology of muscles 2 (Lecture

(Palm of the Hand (practical

MONDAY :1/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-10:30

11:30-1:00

1:00-3:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Mogahid Mahmoud

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Joints of the upper limb (Lecture

Osteomyelitis

(Joints of the upper limb(practical

TUESDAY:2/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 3/5/2017
Dr. Ibrahim Almahi

Dr. Ibrahim Almahi

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Normal X- ray of the upper limb bones (Lecture

(Common Injuries of U .L (X ray demonstration) (Lecture

(Revision of upper limb (Practical

THURSDAY: 4/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa

Department of physiology

Dr. Jamal Yassin

Dr. Jamal Yassin
(Bones of the lower limb (Lecture

(Bones of the lower limb (practical

Practical of physiology

(Discussion of problem (1

(Introduction of problem (2) (femur fracture

SUNDAY:7/5/2017
8:00-9.00

9:00-11:00

11:30-1:00

1:30-2:30

2:30 – 3:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Jamal Mustafa

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Anterior and medial compartments of the thigh (Lecture

(Hand Injuries (Lecture

(Anterior and medial compartments of the thigh (practical

MONDAY :8/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

&Dr. Hassan Ali Musa
Dr. Mogahid Mahmoud

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Gluteal region & Posterior compartment of the thigh (Lecture

(Introduction of seminar of road traffic accidents (Lecture

(Gluteal region & Posterior compartment of the thigh (practical

TUESDAY:9/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 10/5/2017
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa

Dr. Jamal Yassin



& Anterior and lateral compartments of the leg
(dorsum of the foot (Lecture

& Anterior and lateral compartments of the leg
(dorsum of the foot (practical

& Common musculoskeletal injuries. classification of fractures
(management and first aid (Lecture

THURSDAY:11/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-12:30

1:00-2:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Habib Hajo

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Posterior compartment of the leg (Lecture

Common diseases related to calcium &phosphates metabolism (Lecture)

(Posterior compartment of the leg (practical

SUNDAY:14/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Eljily Mohammed

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Sole of the foot (Lecture

(Nerves injuries+ surface marking of the lower limb (Lecture

(Bone tuberculosis (Lecture

(Sole of the foot (practical

MONDAY :15/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-10:30

11:00-12:30

12:30-3:30
Dr. Ahmed Makki

Dr. Habib Hajo

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa
(Joints of the lower limb (Lecture

(Collagen structures function & related problems (Lecture

(Joints of the lower limb (practical

TUESDAY:16/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 17/5/2017
Dr. Hind Osman Taha

Dr. Salah El-amin

Dr. Osman, Wail, Mustafa

Dr Jamal Yassin
(Neoplastic diseases of bone & C .T (Lecture

Introduction of problem (3) Myasthenia Gravis

(Revision of lower limb (practical

(Discussion of problem (2

THURSDAY:18/5/2017
8:00-9.30

10- 11:00

11:30- 1:30

1:30-2:30
Dr. Salah Elamin

Dr. Salah Elamin

(Connective tissue diseases (Lecture

Muscle diseases , common (neurological problems (Lecture

Elective

SUNDAY:21/5/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Salah Elamin

Dr. Jamal Yassin
(Neuromuscular diseases (Lecture

(Painful joints ( Injures ) (Lecture

MONDAY :22/5/2017
8:00-9.30

1:30-3:00
Dr. Mohammed Hassan

Dr. Jamal Yassin
(Peripheral joints& acute Inflammations (Lecture

(Peripheral nerves injuries (Lecture

TUESDAY:23/5/2017
8:00-9.30

1:00-3:00


Vacation Ramadan: 25/5/2017 - 2/7/2017

Dr. Mogahid Mahmood

Dr. Faisal Nogood

Dr. Hassan Ali Musa & Mogahid mahmoud

(Discussion of problem (3

(Introduction of problem ( 4

Final preparation of road traffic accidents seminar

Elective

SUNDAY:2/7/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-1:00

1:00-3:30
Dr. Faisal Nogood

&Dr. Hassan Musa
Dr. Mogahid Mahmood

(Discussion of problem (4

Presentation of road traffic accidents seminar

Elective

MONDAY :3/7/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim

Dr. Faroog Alamir

(Introduction of problem (5

(Normal X-Ray of Lower Limb (Lecture

Elective

TUESDAY:4/7/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-3:00
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 5/7/2017
Dr. Faisal Nogod

Dr. Faroog Alamir

Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim

(Foot anomalies (Lecture

(Common injuries of L.L ( X- ray demonstration) (Lecture

(Group Discussion of problem ( 5

Elective

THURSDAY: 6/7/2017
8:00-9.30

9:30-11:00

12:00-1:30

1:30-3:30
Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim

Dr. Wail & Osman & Mustafa
(Discussion of problem (5

(Revision of upper and lower limb (practical

SUNDAY:9/7/2017
8:00-9.30

10:00-3:30
Elective
MONDAY :10/7/2017
Elective
TUESDAY:11/7/2017
Elective
WEDNDAY: 12/7/2017
Elective
THURSDAY: 13/7/2017
Elective
SUNDAY:16/7/2017
Elective
MONDAY :17/7/2017
(WRITTEN EXAM (MCQS &ESSAY EXAM
TUESDAY:18/7/2017
LONGITUDINAL
WEDNDAY: 19/7/2017
OSPE EXAM
THURSDAY: 20/7/2017

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