تفاصيل المقرر

المقدمة


Disease may be discussed as an alteration in the normal structure and function of any part of the body. This could be caused by biological agents, physical and chemical substances, genetic and immunological factors etc..
Pathology is the study of the disease process by scientific methods which aim not only elucidating the structural and functional abnormalities in disease, but also at revealing the causative factor(s) that underlie these changes. Basic knowledge of the disease process is a pre-requisite to better interpreting of clinical signs and symptoms and also fundamental for correct management and control of the disease in the individual and the community both at epidemic and endemic levels.



المحتويات


The role of the clinical laboratory in diagnosis and management of disease
use the laboratory properly and economically e.g. completion of the request form, collection and transport of specimens etc…
Principle of molecular & genetic basis of disease
normal histology and the general functions of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and other lymphoid tissues
the general properties of bacteria including their relationship to each other and to other organisms
classification Micro organism appearance, composition, structure, growth, metabolism and pathogenicity of most of the medically important bacteria
Describe the general principles underlying the selective staining of bacteria and perform the routine staining procedures used in clinical diagnostic microbiology morphology, pathogenicity and diagnostic techniques of spirochaetes
Rickettsiae, Chlamydiae, Myocplasmae and Actinomycetes

principles of sterilization and disinfection
the general features of most of medically important, fungi i.e. morphology, cultivation and relationship to disease
the fungi and associated with man as to distribution and portal of entry
the hazards of microbial contamination of food and water for human consumption
the cellular and vascular responses in acute inflammation
chemical mediators, vascular response and chemotaxis
progress and sequalae of acute inflammation
common causes of acute inflammation
histological changes in chronic inflammation with special reference to tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy and Madura
wound healing and its types
common types of wounds encountered in common practice

Enumerate the factors that promote, delay or inhibit the healing process
signs and symptoms of infected surgical wound
healing process in bone, liver, skin etc..
the aetiological factors and complications of thromboembolism the role of cytodiagnosis in clinical practice
hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, atrophy, agenesis, dysplasia, neoplasia, anaplasia, necrosis, degeneration, apoptosis, autolysis & putrefaction
the characteristics of begin and malignant neoplasm
tumours
the common neoplasm and their cellular origin
the mode of spread of malignant tumours

staging of tumours both clinical and pathological
the malignant deposit as distinct from the gross normal appearance
the general and specific effects of cancer
the factors that are incriminated in the aetiology of cancer
epidemiology of cancer
the cellular and tissue change that may result from ionising radiation
pathogenesis of bacterial infections
pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and drug metabolism
the antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of microbial infection
the current therapeutic approaches to cancer management

the distinctive properties, functions and classification of medically important viruses
the replicative cycle of DNA & RNA in the host cells
the general information about the pathogenesis, immunity and epidemiology of viral infections
the concepts of immunity
the nature of antibodies and antigens
the molecular basis of antibody and cell mediated immunity
the methods used in serology
different classes and subclasses of immunoglobulins
the different types of hypersensitivity reactions
primary and secondary immune deficiency states, immunological tolerance, anergy and auto-immune states
basic information about cancer and transplantation immunity
Discuss the genetic basis of diseases and molecular biology



المنسقون



المطلوبات


Biochemistry
Cell biology and structure
Basic physiology and histology of the skin,
connective tissue,
epithelia and forming element of the blood



الأهداف


GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
To understand the basic processes of disease and the simple methods of their laboratory diagnosis.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
Identify the role of the clinical laboratory in diagnosis and management of disease
Be able to use the laboratory properly and economically e.g. completion of the request form, collection and transport of specimens etc
Principle of molecular & genetic basis of disease
Describe the normal histology and the general functions of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and other lymphoid tissues
Recognize the general properties of bacteria including their relationship to each other and to other organisms
Be able to generally Classify micro-organism
Describe the appearance, composition, structure, growth, metabolism and pathogenicity of most of the medically important bacteria
Describe the general principles underlying the selective staining of bacteria and perform the routine staining procedures used in clinical diagnostic microbiology
Describe the morphology, pathogenicity and diagnostic techniques of spirochaetes Rickettsiae, Chlamydiae, Myocplasmae and Actinomycetes
Discuss the principles of sterilization and disinfection

Recall the general features of most of medically important, fungi i.e. morphology, cultivation and relationship to disease
Categorize the fungi associated with man as to distribution and portal of entry
Recognize the hazards of microbial contamination of food and water for human consumption
Describe the cellular and vascular responses in acute inflammation
Give an account of chemical mediators, vascular response and chemotaxis
Describe the progress and sequalae of acute inflammation
Give examples of common causes of acute inflammation
Describe the histological changes in chronic inflammation with special reference to tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy and madura
Describe healing of wounds by primary and secondary intention
Classify wound healing and its types
Enumerate the factors that promote, delay or inhibit the healing process

Describe the signs and symptoms of infected surgical wound
Give an outline of the healing process in bone, liver, skin etc..
Recognize the role of cytodiagnosis in clinical practice
Define the terms: hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, atrophy, agenesis, dysplasia, neoplasia, anaplasia, necrosis, degeneration, apoptosis, autolysis & putrefaction
Describe the characteristics of begin and malignant neoplasm Classify tumours
Give examples of the common neoplasm and their cellular origin
Describe the mode of spread of malignant tumour
. Recognize the staging of tumours both clinical and pathological
Recognize the malignant deposit as distinct from the gross normal appearance

Describe the general and specific effects of cancer
Enumerate the factors that are incriminated in the aetiology of cancer
Give a general outline about the epidemiology of cancer
Describe the cellular and tissue change that may result from ionising radiation
List the underlying mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of bacterial infections
Define the terms pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and drug metabolism
Describe the antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of microbial infection
Outline the current therapeutic approaches to cancer management
Identify the distinctive properties, functions and classification of medically important viruses
Describe the replicative cycle of DNA & RNA in the host cells

Recall the general information about the pathogenesis, immunity and epidemiology of viral infections
Describe the concepts of immunity
Discuss the nature of antibodies and antigens
Discuss the molecular basis of antibody and cell mediated immunity
Discuss the methods used in serology
Distinguish between different classes and subclasses of immunoglobulins
Recognise the differences between the different types of hypersensitivity reactions
Define primary and secondary immune deficiency states, immunological tolerance, anergy and auto-immune states
Have the basic information about cancer and transplantation immunity
Discuss the genetic basis of diseases and molecular biology
Calcification
Amyloidosis



طرق التدريس


Lectures
Tutorials
Seminars
Visits (Hospital, lab, etc..)
Practical
Reading assignments
Problem based learning



المصادر


Human Resources :
Pathologists,
Histopathologists,
Mircobiologists,
Surgeons,
Obs. & Gynaecologyists,
Physicians
Paediatricians

Physical Resources :
Rooms and laboratories for 70 students
Tapes,
slides films,
Microscopes...



وسائل التقويم


MCQs : %40
Essays : %30
Practical OSPE: %10
Slides : %10
Attendance : %10
Questionnaire



المراجع


RNM Mac Sween and K Whaey (1992) Muir's Textbook of Pathology , Thirteen Edition (London)
IVAN ROITT (1991) Essential Immunology. Seventh edition
J.B. Walter M.S. Israel (11987) General pathology. Sixth edition
ROBBINS and OTRAN (2004) Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8th Edition
Cedric Mims , Hazed M Dockrell , Richard V Goering Ivan Rott , Derev Wakelin , Mark Zuckerman (2004) Medical microbiology (Third edition)
Lockey and Bukantz (Fundmentals of immunology and allergy
Ivan Roitt Jonathan Brostoff . David Male (1993) Immunology (third edition)
Walther (1982) A introduction to the principles of Disease. Second edition
PM Haw key and D A Lewis Medical bacteriology a practical approach
B.IDUERDEN , T.M.S, REID , J.M. JEWS Bury D.C TURK A new short Textbook of microbial and parasitic infection



الجدول الزمني

Coordinators Introduction to the Course Sun: 19/2/2017 08:00- 8:30
Dr. Nada Suliman
Cell Structure
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sulafa Eltayeb
Introduction to Immunology and Immune System
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Classification of Microorganisms &Bacteria

Mon:20/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sulafa
Antigen-Antibody Reactions
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Bacterial Structure

Tues:21/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sulafa
Humoral and Cellular Immunity
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Growth and Metabolism of Bacteria

Thurs:23/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sulafa
Complement System
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Pathogenesis &Spread of Bacteria

Sun:26/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sulafa
Hypersensitivity Reactions
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Sara Abbas
Medical Viruses &Classification

Mon:27/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Gram-positive Cocci
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Gram-negative Cocci

Tues:28/2/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sara
Pathogenesis of Viral Infections
03:30- 11:30
Prof. Ahmed Mohamedani
Transplantation

Thurs:2/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sara
Diagnosis of Viral Infections
11:30-01:30
Dr. Abdelrheem Elbalal
Sterilization & Disinfection
03:30- 02:00
Dr. Sara
Cell Cycle

Sun:5/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Enterobacteriacae (I)
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Asma Moh. Warag
Degeneration, Necrosis, Autolysis and Putrefaction

Mon:6/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
II))Enterobacteriacae
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Asma
Apoptosis

Tues:7/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Elbalal
Clostridia and Haemophilus influenzae
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind Osman Taha
Acute Inflammation (I)

Thurs:9/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Elbalal
Rickettsia/Chlamydia and Mycoplasma
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind
Acute Inflammation (II)

Sun:12/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Sara
Viral Hepatitis
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind
Acute Inflammation (III)

Mon:13/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Ustaz. Baha Hassan Ustaz. Zakia Yousef
Visit to Medical Laboratory: Groups 1, 2 and 3 Gram Stain and Culture Media: Groups: 4, 5 and 6
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind
Wound Healing (I)

Tues:14/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Ustaz. Baha Ustaz. Zakia
Visit to Medical Laboratory: Groups 4, 5 and 6 Gram Stain and Culture Media: Groups: 1, 2 and 3
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind
Wound Healing (II)

Thurs:16/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Abdalla Moh. Toum
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Hind
Fracture Healing

Sun:19/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Helicobacter pylori
11:30- 03:30
Dr. Hind
Chronic Inflammation

Mon:20/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Souad Fadlallah
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Elbalal
Vibrio cholerae

Tues:21/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Abdalla M. Toum
Mycobacterium leprae
03:30- 11:30
Prof. Mohamedani
Nosocomial Infections

Thurs:23/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Ustaz. Baha Ustaz. Zakia
Practical: Z,N stain= All groups
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Nada
Disorders of Cell Growth (I)

Sun:26/3/2017
08:30-10:30

Hospital Rounds: Inflammation
G.1. Mr. Ahmed Elameen Elsheikh
G.2 Mr. Mustafa Idris
G.3: Mr. Faisal Nugod
G.4: Mr. Mohamed Nasr eldeen
G.5: Mr. Ahmed Kamal
G.6: Mr. Mohamed Omer Mirghani
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Nada
Disorders of Cell Growth (I)

Mon:27/3/2017
08:30-10:30

Hospital Rounds: Inflammation
G.1: Mr. Ahmed Elameen Elsheikh
G.2: Mr. Mustafa Idris
G.3: Mr. Faisal Nugod
G.4: Mr. Mohamed Nasreldeen
G.5: Mr. Ahmed Kamal
G.6: Mr. Mohamed Omer Mirghani
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Nada
Epidemiology & Causes of Cancer

Tues:28/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Souad
Thrombosis, Thromboembolism, Ischaemia and Infarction
03:30- 11:30
Dr. Nada
Spread of Cancers

Thrus:30/3/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Elbalal
Examples of some Common Tumours
03:30- 11:30
Prof. Dafallah Abu idris
Grading& Staging Systems of Cancer

Sun:2/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Prof. Dafallah
Tumours Markers
03:30 - 11:30
Dr. Souad
Spirochetes

Mon:3/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Ust. Baha & Ust. Zakia
Practical: Disinfection & Sterilization
03:30- 11:30
Prof. Mohamedani
Exfoliation and FNA Cytology

Tues:4/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Elbalal
Mycetoma
01:30- 11:30.
Dr. Mohamed alhassan
Introduction to Seminar of Diarrheal Diseases
3:30- 2:00
Dr. Nada
Amyloidosis

Thrus:6/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Prof. Mohamedani
Dystrophic Calcification
01:00- 11:30
Groups Work
Preparation for Diarrheal Diseases
05:00- 02:00
Prof. Dafallah
Cancers Therapy

Sun:9/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Prof. Mohamedani
(1) Slides Presentation
01:30- 11:30
Groups Work
Preparation for Diarrheal Disease
05:00- 02:00
Prof. Mohamedani
Slides Presentation (2)

Mon:10/4/2017
08:30-10:30
Dr. Elbalal
Prof. Ali Babikir Habour
Dr. Souad
Dr. Mohamed alhassan

Diarrheal Disease – Seminar
02:30 – 11:30

Slides Examination

Tues:11/4/2017
08:30-10:30

OSPE
03:30 – 11:30

Written Examination (MCQs and Essays) End of the Course

Thrus:13/4/2017
09:00-10:30

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